Application and Separation. Our modern understanding of these terms differs greatly from the way in which the Greeks used it. For instance, the closer an applying aspect was by degree, the sooner in life the effects of that aspect occurred.
In Greek doctrine, degrees of application can be as much as 15, or even 30! And separations are equally important: if the separation is from a malefic and the application to a benefic, the outcomes are much different than if the other way around. For these phases are that strong. Moon Phases. The terminology used by these authors to describe the phases of the Moon is brilliantly instructive in learning more about how the Greeks perceived the Moon.
Metaphors of birth and death abound in their descriptions. It is possible that until these writers we have not been able to understand or appreciate the importance the Greeks placed on the Moon and its phases. The Doctrine of Sect. Interpreting a chart differently by discerning whether the birth was in the day or night is given close attention in these texts. Diurnal planets Sun, Jupiter and Saturn are more beneficial in a diurnal chart, and the same goes for nocturnal planets Moon, Venus and Mars in a nocturnal chart.
And so the Sun has been allotted the day and the morning rising and the masculine zoidia , and it has as spear-bearers the stars of Kronos and Zeus.
The Moon [is allotted] the night and the evening rising and the feminine zoidia , and it has as spear-bearers the stars of Ares and Aphrodite. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period. The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity.
The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in , media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in ; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the " Six Ages " or the " Four Empires ", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern".
In the s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around , with the date of first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe.
For Europe as a whole, is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in , Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in , or the Protestant Reformation in are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in to mark the end of the period. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late.
Arabs Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia , North Africa , the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula ; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire , the succeeding Neo-Babylonian , Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids , begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.
Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations. The Arabs forged the Rashidun , Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire ; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories , forming the modern Arab states.
Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in , the Arab League was founded on 22 March ; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora.
The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism , a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni , Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths , an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram , which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu , who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs".
Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub , the first to speak Arabic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Book III. Categories : 4th-century births Ancient Roman astrologers Ancient Greek astrologers Ancient Greek writers 4th-century writers Ancient Alexandrians Roman-era Greeks 4th-century Egyptian people 4th-century Greek people 4th-century Romans Romans from unknown gentes.
Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. According to legend, Rome was founded in BC by Romulus and Remus , who were raised by a she-wolf. Etruscan painting ; dancer and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards , in Tarquinia, Italy. The term refers to the culture of the Roman Republic, later the Roman Empire, which at its peak covered an area from Lowland Scotland and Morocco to the Euphrates.
Wall painting 1st century AD from Pompeii depicting a multigenerational banquet. A late Republican banquet scene in a fresco from Herculaneum , Italy, c. A fresco portrait of a man holding a papyrus roll, Pompeii , Italy, 1st century AD. Fresco of a seated woman from Stabiae , 1st century AD. Alexander The Great. Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces.
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England. Citizen of Roman Egypt Fayum mummy portrait. The Column of Constantine , built by Constantine I in to commemorate the establishment of Constantinople as the new capital of the Roman Empire. Another coin struck by Constantine I in — to commemorate the foundation of Constantinople and to also reaffirm Rome as the traditional centre of the Roman Empire.
The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael 's pupils —, fresco , Vatican City, Apostolic Palace ; Eusebius of Caesarea records that Constantine delayed receiving baptism until shortly before his death.
Paulus Alexandrinus | Revolvy
Follis with Maurice in consular uniform. The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art. Hellenistic period. Dionysus sculpture from the Ancient Art Collection at Yale. Philip V , "the darling of Hellas", wearing the royal diadem.
The Colossus of Rhodes , one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Early Baroque artist's rendition. The Earth in its orbit around the Sun causes the Sun to appear on the celestial sphere moving along the ecliptic red , which is tilted Wheel of the zodiac: This 6th century mosaic pavement in a synagogue incorporates Greek-Byzantine elements, Beit Alpha , Israel.
The 1st century BC Dendera zodiac 19th-century engraving. Mediaeval stained glass by Andre Robin after the fire of Astrological beliefs in correspondences between celestial observations and terrestrial events have influenced various aspects of human history, including world-views, language and many elements of social culture.
Astrologer-astronomer Richard of Wallingford is shown measuring an equatorium with a pair of compasses in this 14th-century work. It shows the purported relation between body parts and the signs of the zodiac. Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais , son of 'Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, , viz. Found at Nemara in the Hauran Southern Syria.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn Khaldun. The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans. In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. The Cross of Mathilde , a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen — , who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque.
The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen , the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree , enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gem s. A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna Italy , bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria. The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Cishou Temple Pagoda , built in the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period. Gutenberg reviewing a press proof a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century.
The meridian of Tordesillas , separating the Portuguese and Spanish halves of the world is also depicted. If you wanted to know more about ones actions in life, ones motivations and choices, you could conceivably use the Lot of Spirit as the Ascendant and derive a "Spirit" chart. This is one lot there is not a whole lot of clarification on. Maybe it is because it deals with an area of life that the early astrologers were less prepared to deal with.
As I understand this particular lot, in today's language, this would deal with the "unconscious" and "conscious" self. There are absolutely no examples of its use in earlier texts, although Valens describes this lot in this way;. For, the one Lot of Fortune shows matters concerning the body and handicrafts, the Spirit and its ruler matters concerning the soul and the intellect, and actions through discourse and through giving and receiving. A thought that has been at the top of my mind at least is if this technique could give us a more valid picture of the "psychological" workings of an individual.
Using modern application and interpretation of this ancient technique might just produce some interesting results.
Besides using the various lots as derived charts the ancients also could "turn" the chart to give further clarification of the natal places. By turning the chart so the 4th was on the Ascendant one could learn about the mother, or the wife of the father 7th from the 4th. By putting the 3rd on the Ascendant, the success or misfortune of siblings the 10th from the third and so on. This technique is very important in today's Horary astrology. Another chart that was essentially derived from the natal was the Solar Return chart and profections. These were all derived from movements of the natal chart through time and they were all consistently whole sign houses.
As we've seen in this study of ancient house systems the entirely modern problem of house division did not exist. The early astrologers did not see the signs as separate from the houses. The houses were simply roles that the signs took on depending upon their relation to some point that marked one of the signs as being the first house or place.
Since this system is attributed to the early Egyptian writers, such as the legendary Nechepso and Petosiris, one can easily assume the source to be Egyptian. What is interesting though is the fact that Vedic astrology uses "whole sign" houses and I wonder about how much early influence actually comes from Vedic astrology. If so, then there is clearly an earlier influence of Vedic than that attributed to later Persian astrologers. Ptolomey We saw in the previous parts of this series the historical and philosophical roots of modern "house systems".
The differences are quite significant and lead us to certain relevant questions. Just how did our systems become so different? Was it because the earlier methods didn't work? Was it because of new innovations or changes due to philosophical reasoning? This part of our examination of the historical record will focus on the pivotal events surrounding this change and I think in order to get a clear picture of events I need to discuss a little about the man who was decidedly the most important contributor to the development of Astrology, Claudius Ptolemaeus aka Ptolemy ca.
Ptolemy was an astronomer, mathematician and geographer. He wrote two major works, which were actually composed of several books. The first, Mathematical Syntaxis widely called the Almagest , was a thirteen book mathematical treatment of the phenomena of astronomy. Tetrabiblos is a four-book volume that systematically organises the mechanics, philosophy and cosmology of Astrology. Apart from his writings, very little is indeed known about this man who has had so much influence not only on the astrology that was to follow him but also science in general and specifically astronomy.
There is a lot of speculation as regarding his relationship to astrology. His writings give us some indication however that he was not a "practicing" astrologer. It is also very interesting to note that two of his close contemporaries, Dorotheus of Sidon and Vettius Valens never once refer to him or his writings while it is quite apparent that Dorotheus knew of Valens as he refers to him twice in his work Carmen Astrologicum.
Vettius Valens at the age of 35 ca. This date is contemporary with Ptolemy, and since Valens was in Egypt to study, I find it strange indeed that he never mentions once someone who was to have so much later influence. I think I can put this mysterious lack of relationship into modern terms.
I am an engineer. It is my livelihood and what I spend hours a day, days a week doing! I build ships. In order to do that we receive drawings of what the ship is to look like from an architect. It is not the architects job to draw a final solution, they do have a "limited" knowledge of certain principles, but their job is only to define what the owner would like the final product to look like. That definition is a neatly organised picture of the total product. However, my experience after 25 years in this field, is that while on the outside the finished product looks like the architects principle drawings, getting there often required the revision of the individual functioning parts as defined by the architect.
In other words what looks "nice" in theory, quite often has no relationship to the practical building and does not work! When I am trying to find a workable solution to a problem in engineering, I don't go to an architect. I go to other engineers who are working in my field and study the techniques they used to arrive at something that works in reality.
An example of this is one of the last projects I worked on where we ended up with 32 revisions of the architect's original drawings! My point is this: I have a very strong suspicion that Ptolemy's contemporaries did not study his writings for the exact same reason. Ptolemy's works were irrelevant to their practice. Oh, it gives us a very nice "picture", well organised and catalogued, but I think they regarded it as strictly qualitative and not a reference for the actual "building" process of a horoscope from a practitioners perspective.
Ptolemy wasn't even so much an "architect" as he was a compiler of architects. The problem with compilation and cataloguing lies in the fact that often it requires taking things out of context and that is where mistakes and misunderstandings are made, especially if one is lacking the skills of the applied science.
Ptolemy's Environment and the "Great Library" in Alexandria To complicate matters worse, what if in the next years engineers became a "persona non grata" in the social structure and for various reasons all writings on applications of the principles of engineering were systematically destroyed.
If at a later date engineering became popular again, but the only remaining documents were those of the architect, just how far along in the building process could we come? In effect this did occur with astrology and is truly one of the greatest travesties of justice in mankind's history. The Ptolemaic kings paid special attention to enrich the Library with treasures of knowledge in all fields and branches of knowledge from every part of the then Greek Empire. They were anxious to acquire originals of works and the most valuable collections. They "borrowed" scrolls from the Chaldeans, Babylonians and virtually every centre of learning in the occupied territories.
They would borrow the originals, copy them and return the copies to the owners. It is even reported they went so far as to search each ship that visited Alexandria and if a book was found, it would be taken to the Library to be copied and the copy would be returned to the owner.
The ancient Library was the only truly universal library. We have no record of an exact count, some speculate at its peak it held some , scrolls, equivalent to about , printed books today. The Library also encouraged translations, and the Septuagint, the first translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew to Greek, took place there. Under the Roman rule of Alexandria the Library still existed. The Great, or more properly, "Royal Library" formed a part of the Museum that was located in the palace quarter of the city of Alexandria. A "sister" library was located in the Great Temple of Serapis, simply called "the Serapeum", which was in the southwestern quarter of the city of Alexandria but was considerably smaller.
It was in 48 B. In the recorded historical accounts of this tragedy it is said that Marc Anthony compensated Cleopatra with the gift of the , scrolls from Pergamum. These were said to have been placed in the Museum which, unfortunately, was itself destroyed along with the Royal Quarter sometime in the third century AD during the further strife and accompanying power struggles that shook the Roman Empire. Ptolemy is believed to have done his work and compiling in Alexandria, so must have used as his references those documents remaining in the Museum and the sister library in the Serapeum.
What documents he had at his disposal, we can only conclude with surety, were those whom he himself says were the source of his work. Only translations of Euclid's works survive today.
We know nothing of his astrological sources, however his doctrines of planetary influence, the portrayal of the stars' and signs' characteristics, and certain general procedures found in Tetrabiblios are very similar to those found in all ancient astrological writings. However there is a core of specific doctrines and methods, not to mention entire areas of forecasting common to his other contemporaries and predecessors, which are not included nor even alluded to, in Tetrabiblios.
The complete teachings of sect, Lots, Places or houses , the periods of the stars or "chronocrators" and "Time Lords" and there is absolutely no use of numerical methods. He also omits all procedures for "elections" and "Interrogations" horary. Very simply it is not certain by his own writings that Ptolemy had access to a vast resource of the earliest writings at all and secondly his style of approach is quite different from his contemporaries which suggests that Ptolemy viewed astrology much as he did the other disciplines, strictly as a theoretical science, by the use of which the scientist can explain the interconnections between celestial and terrestrial phenomena and can trace the cause-effect relationships between the stars and the earth.
This is much clearer in his detailed inclusion of general astrological prediction for the earth as a whole, astrological geography and his study of eclipses and planetary effects on the weather. This can be seen in contrast to the "hands-on" astrological practices of Dorotheus who introduces us to very detailed Electional and horary techniques and Valens who conveniently supplies us with some actual horoscopes and "case" studies.
The next and final blow to posterity came at the close of the fourth century C. Theophilus, who was the Bishop of Alexandria from to C. Some few scholars survived for another generation till the murder of Hypatia in AD, which ushered in the end of the Alexandrian scholarship era. Thus passed from existence the majority of historical records also.
What we have remaining today is probably only a fraction of a very small percentage of the original works and many of them are translations of translations of translations. Dorotheus' work, Carmen Astrologicum, is a good example. What we have in this current English translation is taken from an Arabic translation made around by Al-Tarabi, itself a translation from a 3rd century Persian translation of the original Greek. Now this entire history lesson is very relevant to our study of Houses.
I'm sure you're asking why? The answer is simply because our current astrology as well as much of traditional and medieval is influenced to a large extent on the main surviving text from this era, that of Ptolemy. This is in no way to discredit his work either. If he hadn't recorded what he had, astrology may well have died completely.
It is his treatment or actually lack of it of the Houses that have influenced our understanding of them today. Ptolemy's Equal House System Ptolemy is given the credit as having invented the equal house system that begins 5 degrees before the Ascendant. But there are some real questions, in my mind at least, if this was in fact what he was doing.
Several important points should be taken into consideration before that conclusion is made. First it must be said for Ptolemy that his scientific works were not "new" innovations. He instead attempted to verify and add to existing data by new investigation, observation and mathematical procedure. He then presented his data in precise tables and format. He did not redo original observations or revise the original conceptual frameworks already existing. Ptolemy was very conservative in his work.
He does not introduce any house-system whatsoever in his first book, which deals with the elements of astrology. In fact, when he does talk about "places" or houses his language is identical to his contemporaries and uses all the traditional language of pivots, post- ascensions, and declines. There is no reason to believe that Ptolemy regarded the Horoskopos, Midheaven, etc. In Book III, chapter 6, dealing with siblings, he explicitly calls the place of the mother a zoidion or sign and invokes the tenth place relative to this in the traditional manner of a derived house system.
He never says that he will be describing a "new" or revised house system in an upcoming chapter, though he does say this in the case of the Lot of Fortune and certain other matters. We have no evidence of this particular house system prior to Ptolemy, and if he were innovating, I would have expected him to say so because of his very conservative methods. Secondly when he does discuss an equal house system starting from 5 degrees before the ascendant it is in a specific context.
This system he introduces in Book III chapter 11, is where he describes the procedure for finding "the place of releasing" or in other terms the place in the chart suitable for the "hyleg" or "life-giver" to be found. This is the same treatment where Valens introduces us to the division of the mundane quadrants by equal thirds in order to establish the strength of a planet. There are clear differences in the two texts, but they are differences involving "strengths" and not topical in nature. For example Ptolemy says, "For one must properly refuse the whole region under the earth for so great an authority.
Similarly also for the nocturnal planets, if someone should have them above the earth [at night], it will be expedient. So like Valens, Ptolemy instructs us to examine sect in the determination of the "strongest" place. But unlike Valens I think it is rather obvious that Ptolemy either did not understand the whole doctrine of sect, or he did not have the full historical records regarding this.
I say this because like Valens, Ptolemy tells us that the suitable planets as the hyleg are the Lords of Sect, the Sun and the Moon. However in a Day chart the Moon was in its greatest strength below the earth and the Sun below the earth in a nocturnal chart according to the doctrine of sect. So his statement is not quite true. If the Sun was placed in the 9th "house" above the earth in a diurnal chart while the Moon was placed in the 5th below the earth, the Moon in fact is of the greater strength because of the Suns cadency and the Moons proper sect placement and successive placement.
But this as I said is a question within the context of the subject matter of Ptolemy's discussion of planetary strength. His whole treatment however does not turn these "places" to measure the strength of a planet into topical houses, very much in agreement with Valens' treatment of the same subject.
So there is no reason to believe that Ptolemy was intending to turn this new system into a topical system. Thirdly we have to examine the use of "houses" in the work of those immediately following Ptolemy in History and who were in fact commentators of his work. What I personally find interesting is that those that came after Ptolemy and quoted him extensively in their own writings, such as Porphyry C.
It is also clear by comments from Hephastio, that this question of house division already exists and many of his contemporaries like Maternus were using it. However, Hephastio quotes an earlier commentator of Ptolemy, Panchios, who did not think that Ptolemy had in mind an equal house division of the zodiac at all, but rather a quadrant style division similar to the one mentioned by Valens, the only difference being that he accommodates the five degrees above the Ascendant required by Ptolemy.
The exception was Maternus who did use an equal house system, which he attributes to Ptolemy. It is also a fact that it was Julius Firmicus Maternus' astrology textbook called Mathesis, which was one of the first Roman works on astrology to be rediscovered in Mediaeval Europe. It was first made available again in 10th century Spain, and reached as far as to England by the end of the 11th century, even before the works of Ptolemy were translated. Conclusion All of this discussion points to some very disturbing possible conclusions.
What we are discussing are not "philosophical" issues nor are we discussing issues of technique because of the inadequacy of an earlier tradition, but rather issues that surround the transmission of the historical record. If anything is being revealed it is the fact that there is the possibility that the historical record has become corrupted. I don't think it is fair either to lay the blame on Ptolemy. As a matter of fact, given the conditions of the "Great Library" in Alexandria in Ptolemy's day, it could very well have been the prime motivation of Ptolemy to preserve and restore what was possible, a very courageous venture indeed.
What much of this information means for us indicates a need to re-examine our doctrines that we hold so dearly today and that includes our doctrines on "House systems". In the next instalment I'm going to begin examining the record from the Arabic period to the medieval period and we'll see if their approaches can shed any further light on our inquiry. Riley Houses: old and New - Part 3. The Equal House System I mentioned in Part 2 that I was going to go on to the Arab authors however I think it might be more worthwhile to finish off this period of history with a little closer examination of what has been called Ptolemy's "Equal House" system.
In Tetrabiblos , Ptolemy offers us this house system as part of the procedure for finding the planet which was to be the hyleg or "life giver" of the chart.